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Install "by hand" Yunohost v3.x.x.x on Raspberry Pi on a Raspbian Stretch Lite base | proofreading in progress

“YunoHost is a server operating system designed to simplify the self-hosting of Internet services. It is based on and remains fully compatible with Debian GNU/Linux.”

More details on the publisher's website https://yunohost.org/#/docs_en


SD card preparation

The SD card must be formatted. First, make sure to save all files and other documents it may contain on another medium.

It is necessary to:

Install the SD card into the Raspberry Pi, plug in the power supply and install Raspbian Lite by choosing the language and keyboard layout.

Configuration of Raspbian Lite Stretch

Normally SSH is not enabled by default. The user is pi and the password is raspberry.

Create a STRONG password for root and re-identify as root

sudo passwd root
# enter and confirm password
# identifier : root
# root password : the one you just created

Remove user pi

deluser pi

Update and clean up

apt update && apt --assume-yes dist-upgrade && apt autoclean && apt autoremove

Make sure Apache is not installed and remove it if necessary

apt autoremove apache2*

Launch the Raspberry Pi Configurator

sudo raspi-config

Update raspi-config

Menu 8

Adjust regional parameters

Menu 4
I1 to set locales (en_GB.UTF-8)
I2 to set the time
I3 to set the keyboard layout
I4 for WiFi settings.

Change hostname

Menu 2
N1 to change the hostname raspberry to YunoHost

To check, but normally with NOOBS all the space on the SD card is available

Menu 7

Normally, there will be no need for graphics rendering

Menu 7
Pass value to minimum : 16

Finish and restart

sudo reboot

Retrieving local and public IP addresses, checking the update file and updating firmwares

Know your local IP address

hostname -I

Know your public IP address

curl ifconfig.me
Check that the Raspbian version will be updated on the Stretch database.

Replace stable by stretch in the /etc/apt/sources.list file

sed -i's|stable|stretch|' /etc/apt/sources.list

Install the latest firmwares and restart

sudo apt update
sudo rpi-update
sudo reboot

Enable SSH and allow root connections in SSH

Enabling SSH and allowing root to connect is optional. It all depends on how you want to use and maintain your YunoHost server and instance.

Activate SSH

Menu 5
P2 Enable SSH

Allow root to connect in SSH and reload the SSH service

sed -i's/PermitRootLogin without-password/PermitRootLogin yes/g' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
ssh reload service

Reconnect with root to SSH

ssh root@ip.rasp.berry.pi

YunoHost Installation

As a reminder, the installation script cannot be run with user pi : you must be identified as root.

Launch this order

bash <(wget -q -O- https://install.yunohost.org/)

Post-installation of YunoHost

When restarting, you just have to agree to launch the post-installation.

Otherwise the command is as follows:

yunohost tools postinstall
If necessary to configure git : Configure git
git config --global user.email "you@your_domain.tld"
git config --global user.name "Your Name"

Restart the server


As a reminder

Your YunoHost administration address is https://myserver.tld/yunohost/admin/ and your YunoHost portal address is https://myserveur.tld/.

To regenerate services :
yunohost service regen-conf

To update the list of YunoHost applications :

yunohost app fetchlist

To update YunoHost applications :

yunohost app upgrade

To make a backup:

mkdir /home/yunohost.backup/archives
yunohost backup create

To recover a backup from its server to the /home of its computer (with 1234 as SSH port ; with IP_or_NDD as IP address[local or not] or NDD its Domain Name ; with $USER its username ; with yyyyymmdd-hhmmss as for example 20161002-084907[backup name YunoHost]): scp -P 1234 root@IP_or_DomainName:/home/yunohost.backup/archives/yyyymmdd-hhmmss.tar.gz /home/$USER

scp -P 1234 root@IP_or_DomainName:/home/yunohost.backup/archives/yyyymmdd-hhmmss.info.json /home/$USER

Same principle as before, send a backup from the /home of your computer to your server (make sure that the archive folder exists otherwise launch a first backup or as a last resort create the root folder : mkdir /home/yunohost.backup/archives) :

scp -P 1234 /home/$USER/yyyymmdd-hhmmss.info.json root@IP_or_DomainName:/home/yunohost.backup/archives
scp -P 1234 /home/$USER/yyyymmdd-hhmmss.tar.gz root@IP_or_DomainName:/home/yunohost.backup/archives

To restore a backup :

yunohost backup restore backup_name_in_YunoHost

Sources for backup :

In order for NextCloud files to be backed up in addition to the application parameters themselves, you must edit the /etc/yunohost/apps/nextcloud/settings.yml file and delete the “1” from the backup_core_only variable : nano /etc/yunohost/apps/nextcloud/settings.yml

backup_core_only: '1'
backup_core_only: ''

To deny access to an application to a user:

yunohost app removeaccess app -u user
# and by extension :
yunohost app removeaccess app1 app2 app3 -u user1 user2 user3
# to do the opposite.:
yunohost app addaccess app -u user

Source: https://forum.yunohost.org/t/refuser-lacces-dune-application-a-un-utilisateur/3266/2

Source : https://forum.yunohost.org/t/refuser-lacces-dune-application-a-un-utilisateur/3266/2

To deactivate wifi and/or bluetooth:

To save and exit the nano editor : Ctrl+o et Ctrl+x

Edit the file fbdev-blacklist.conf (formerly raspi-blacklist.conf)

sudo nano /etc/modprobe.d/fbdev-blacklist.conf

Add these lines …

blacklist brcmfmac
blacklist brcmutil
blacklist btbcm
blacklist hci_uart

… then restart the server


Sources : http://www.cedynamix.fr/jeedom-raspberry-3-desactivation-bluetooth-wifi/

To expand the partition if necessary :

raspi-config # 1 Expand Filesystem

If it doesn't work then try this command to adapt to your partition after a df -h and/or fdisk -l

df -h
fdisk -l
resize2fs -p /dev/mmcblk*** # for example mmcblk0p2

You can also contribute to this project here https://doc.yunohost.org/#/contribute_en.

It's up to you to test and hack ;-)

To go further ...

The following sections are intended for advanced users because incorrect settings and/or settings can, at a minimum, alter the security set up by default of Yunohost applications and server, or even cause bigger problems.

Clone the YunoHost installation script and directly install the YunoHost testing version

Reserved for advanced users who know what they are doing.

To go directly to the 'testing' version of YunoHost (without installing the stable version) :

bash <(wget -q -O- https://install.yunohost.org/switchToTesting)

Update your instance:

apt-get update && apt-get dist-upgrade

Specify the testing repository instead of the stable repository in the sources.list YunoHost :

echo'deb http://repo.yunohost.org/debian/ stretch stable testing' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/yunohost.list

Update your instance (again) with testing repositories:

apt-get update && apt-get dist-upgrade

Source in report: https://forum.yunohost.org/t/yunohost-2-5-0-beta-call-for-beta-testers-and-translators/2243

To go back and go back to stable mode

Indicate the stable deposit instead of the testing deposit:

echo'deb http://repo.yunohost.org/debian/ stretch stable' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/yunohost.list

Updating the instance :

apt-get update && apt-get dist-upgrade

<important note> N.B.: Your version will only return to the stable version when new stable packages are released. </note>

Source: https://forum.yunohost.org/t/yunohost-2-5-0-beta-call-for-beta-testers-and-translators/2243

Be notified by email when a ssh connection to the server :

You must install mailutils for the mail function of the script to work:

apt-get install mailutils

Next, create, or edit if it exists, the /etc/ssh/sshrc file.

sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshrc

Enter the following lines, adapting at least the reception email address :

# source: http://blog.uggy.org/post/2009/06/05/...
DATE=`date "+%d.%m.%Y--%Hh%Mm"`
IP=`echo $SSH_CONNECTION | awk {print $1}'`
REVERSE=`dig -x $IP +short``
echo "Connecting $USER to $HOSTNAME
Date: $DATE

" | mail -s "Connection of $USER on $HOSTNAME" me@my_domain_name.tld

Then restart ssh :

service ssh restart

Source : http://yeuxdelibad.net/Logiciel-libre/Installation_and_securisation_d_un_serveur_auto-sheberge.html#surveiller

Be notified by SMS when a ssh connection to the server :

Free-Mobilonauts can also be alerted by SMS. Just add to the previous file the following script (to be adapted with the API identifier and key after activating the SMS notification option on the Free https://mobile.free.fr/moncompte/ client panel) :

# SMS notification sending script via Free Mobile API
# https://github.com/C-Duv/freemobile-smsapi-client
# Author: DUVERGIER Claude (http://claude.duvergier.fr)
# Requires: sed, sh et wget
# Possible usages:
#   send-notification.sh "All your base are belong to us"
#   echo "All your base are belong to us" | send-notification.sh
#   uptime | send-notification.sh

## Configuration système

# End-of-line character (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percent-encoding#Character_data)
NEWLINE_CHAR="%0D" # Valeurs possibles : %0A, %0D et %0D%0A

# URL to access the API

# Sending notification action

## User configuration

# Login user / ID Free Mobile (the one used to access the Subscriber Area)

# Identification key (generated and provided by Free Mobile via the Subscriber Area, "My Options" : https://mobile.free.fr/moncompte/index.php?page=options)

# Text that will be added BEFORE each message sent

# Text that will be added AFTER each message sent

## Message Processing

if [ "$1" ]; then # Message as a command line argument
else # Message lu de STDIN
    while read line
    MESSAGE_TO_SEND=$(echo $MESSAGE_TO_SEND | sed 's/'$NEWLINE_CHAR'$//') # Remove the last line break


## Call to API (send)

# echo "Will send the following to $USER_LOGIN:" #DEBUG

# --insecure : Certificat $SMSAPI_BASEURL does not provide information about its owner
# --write-out "%{http_code}" --silent --output /dev/null : Returns HTTP response code only
HTTP_STATUS_CODE=$(curl --insecure --get "$SMSAPI_BASEURL/$SMSAPI_SEND_ACTION" --data "user=$USER_LOGIN" --data "pass=$API_KEY" --data "msg=$FINAL_MESSAGE_TO_SEND" --write-out "%{http_code}" --silent --output /dev/null)

# Possible HTTP response codes
# 200 : The SMS was sent to your mobile.
# 400 : One of the mandatory parameters is missing.
# 402 : Too many SMS messages have been sent in too little time.
# 403 : The service is not activated in the subscriber area, or the login / key is incorrect.
# 500 : Server side error. Please try again later.

if [ "$HTTP_STATUS_CODE" -eq 200 ]; then
    # echo "API responded with 200: exiting with 0" #DEBUG
    exit 0
    echo "Error: API responded with $HTTP_STATUS_CODE"
    exit 1

Source : https://github.com/C-Duv/freemobile-smsapi-client


To schedule tasks, such as an update followed by an installation upgrade, you can use cron.

More details here : http://doc.ubuntu-fr.org/cron


This allows to ban ip addresses trying to connect “furiously”. It is installed by default on Yunohost.

sudo apt-get install fail2ban

Then, you have to edit the configuration file to give an email address to send the ban reports.

sudo nano /etc/fail2ban/jail.conf
findtime = 3600
bantime = 86400
destemail = your@email.com

Still in this same file, look for the line that starts with action = in order to add mwl after the _ in order to have a complete report.

action =%(action_mwl)s

Then, still in the same file, in order to have the reports on the main services, you must replace false by true in the following parts :

  • ssh ;
  • ssh-ddos ;

Apparently, there is a lot of brute-force on sasl, so it is best to comment on this rule failregex = (?i): warning: [-._\w]+\[<HOST>\]: SASL (?:LOGIN|PLAIN|(?:CRAM|DIGEST)-MD5) authentication failed(: [A-Za-z0-9+/]*={0,2})?$ and apply this one failregex = (?i): warning: [-._\w]+\[<HOST>\]: SASL (?:LOGIN|PLAIN|(?:CRAM|DIGEST)-MD5) authentication failed: \w :

nano /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/sasl.conf
#failregex = (?i): warning: [-._\w]+\[<HOST>\]: SASL (?:LOGIN|PLAIN|(?:CRAM|DIGEST)-MD5) authentication failed(: [A-Za-z0-9+/]*={0,2})?$
failregex = (?i): warning: [-._\w]+\[<HOST>\]: SASL (?:LOGIN|PLAIN|(?:CRAM|DIGEST)-MD5) authentication failed: \w

Further settings are available here : http://doc.ubuntu-fr.org/fail2ban

Change the ssh listening port

Edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config :

sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

The default listening port number is 22. Choose one beyond the number 1024, for example: 12345.

Next, edit the fail2ban configuration file to tell it to listen to port 12345 instead of port 22.

sudo nano /etc/fail2ban/jail.conf 

In the #JAIL section chapter [ssh] and [ssh-ddos], you have to change :

port = ssh by port = 12345

Then, it is necessary to restart the firewall, disable the old port in the firewall (a priori the 22), restart the ssh service and reload the fail2ban service :

yunohost firewall reload
yunohost firewall disallow 22
sudo service ssh restart
sudo fail2ban-client reload

Source : https://yunohost.org/#/security_en

Logwatch installation

If you want to have a history of what happened on the server the day before, just install logwatch :

sudo apt-get install logwatch
sudo mkdir /var/cache/logwatch

Before modifying the configuration file, make a copy :

sudo cp /usr/share/logwatch/default.conf/logwatch.conf /etc/logwatch/conf/

Then make the changes here :

 nano /etc/logwatch/conf/logwatch.conf 

For example, sending reports to an email address and/or changing the level of detail of the summary generated :

MailTo = me@my.domaine.tld
Detail = Med

To run logwatch in a terminal :

sudo logwatch

To go further in the configuration : http://doc.ubuntu-fr.org/logwatch#configuration

Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator

documentation/raspberrypi/yunohost-stretch-v3.x.x.x-rpi_en.txt · Dernière modification : le 04-12-2018 à 17h59 de

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